If your question is not answered below, please email us directly at elitestudy@stanford.edu.

  • I did a VO2max-test ten years ago, is that OK?
  • Do I have to come to Stanford to participate?
  • Must I leave blood?
  • I'm an elite endurance athlete but I have never done a VO2max-test. Can you help me with that?
  • What protections does my sample have when in your possession?
  • Is this research being sponsored by any outside entities such as a pharma company? If so would they have access to my profile?
  • I have an estimate of my VO2max from my smartwatch--can I still participate?
  • What are the different types of VO2max testing?
  • What if I don't know my VO2max but think I might qualify--how fast are runners with a VO2max of 55+ for women and 65+ for men?



Yes, since we are looking at the DNA your VO2max-test can have been done at any time (even 30 years ago), and you can still be enrolled and give a saliva sample now.




No, the consent form and questionnaire can be filled out from your home, and the saliva sample kit and pre-paid return envelope can be sent to you as well.






No, you just leave a saliva sample (spit in a tube).







Yes, we may be able to provide you with a VO2max if you have never been tested. Please contact us if you are interested.









All samples and genetic information are deidentified (i.e. given a code instead of your name or anything that could be used to identify you within reason) and stored in a secure location. Additionally, the enrollment REDCap survey is conducted through a secure platform to which only HIPAA-certified study researchers have access. All data are stored on secure, encrypted servers and all analyses are conducted using deidentified data.











No and No. We do not release your information to any companies. This research is sponsored by philanthropy as part of the Wu Tsai Human Performance Alliance. Learn more about this scientific research and technology partnership here.














Yes! Even if you only have a smartwatch VO2max estimate, you may participate in the ELITE Study.
















Lab Max Test: Test performed to failure while connected to a machine capable of measuring expired air.

Estimate from Maximal Performance Test: Test performed to failure while not connected to any machine capable of measuring expired air. An example of a maximal performance test is the Cooper Test (12-minute run).

Estimate from Submaximal Test: Test performed at a non-maximal level where only heart rate, time, and potentially distance are measured. Examples of a submaximal test include the 6-minute walk test, 3-minute step test, and the rockport fitness walking test.

Estimate from an activity tracker: The VO2 value estimated by your activity tracker, for example Garmin, Apple Watch, Coros Watch, etc.

















A VO2max of 55+ often translates to a least an 18 min 5k or 38 min 10k race for female runners, while a VO2max of 65+ often translates to at least a 16 min 5k or 33 min 10k race for male runners.


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